Quoted from Tatsuro Nikawa on Decentralization and Local Governance: Reinforcing Democracy and Effective Local Government)
……….Operating the decentralized system, local governance has to evolve in order to make effective use of powers and resources. It seems that there are three steps of evolution in local governance. The first step is responsive type of local governance, the second step is the network type of local governance, and the third step is the partnership type of local governance.
The responsive local governance means the good governance of local government. Also it has the effective and efficient public service provision. Responsive local governance ought to carry out its duty of responsibility and accountability for local people, and provide the chance of citizen participation. While citizen participation is increasing, local governance begins to change to the network governance.
The network governance is composed of the cooperation and responsiveness of localactors. Local actors are mutually networked and exchange their information among them. The community action group, private company, and NGOs are the actors. Also there is networking among local government and many local actors which operate to organize the network issue and then policy network in specialized areas. This network functions in the participative decision making process of local government which attain more effective and efficient policy outcome. In the network governance, the actors learn and grow in the operation of local governance, which is the governance partnership.
The governance partnership, providing that the local people acquire maturity as an owner and user of power and control in locality, is characterized by the equal partnership between local actors and government, the cooperation of provision of public services among them, and the effective and efficient use of local resources though this cooperation. The governance partnership will keep and secure the
sustainability of community.