In examining the central and local government relations, Amakawa Akira uses the second axis of sharing and self-executing in addition to the axis of centralization and decentralization.
Originally Amakawa Akira designed this model to analyze the modern government systems of Japan chronologically, but it is often used for comparison between systems of different countries. The axis of centralization/decentralization indicates which is more influential in policymaking, the central or local governments, while Amakawa on the basis of a kind of job allocation defines the axis of sharing/self-executing.
JICA Team led by Muramatsu Michio defines ‘sharing’ as the conditions in which the range of concerns of the central and local governments broadly overlaps each other, and ‘self-executing’ as those in which the range of each hardly overlaps. The central-local government relations of Anglo-American countries tend to be ‘self-executing,’ while those of continental countries tend to be ‘sharing’ ones that use local governments as executive agencies of the central government (JICA, 2001).